SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY LECTURE NOTES 1.2

Hindsight bias:

Also known as the knew-it-all-along effect or creeping determinism, is the inclination, after an event has occurred, to see the event as having been predictable, despite there having been little or no objective basis for predicting it, prior to its occurrence. 

Hindsight bias may cause memory distortion, where the recollection and reconstruction of content can lead to false theoretical outcomes. 

Change blindness:

Change blindness is a surprising perceptual phenomenon that occurs when a change in a visual stimulus is introduced and the observer does not notice it. 

Motion aftereffect:

MAE is a visual illusion experienced after viewing a moving visual stimulus for a time (tens of milliseconds to minutes) with stationary eyes, and then fixating a stationary stimulus. The stationary stimulus appears to move in the opposite direction to the original (physically moving) stimulus. The motion aftereffect is believed to be the result of motion adaptation. 

    Explanation:  Neurons coding a particular movement reduce their responses with time of exposure to a constantly moving stimulus; this is neural adaptation. Neural adaptation also reduces the spontaneous, baseline activity of these same neurons when responding to a stationary stimulus. One theory is that perception of stationary objects, for example rocks beside a waterfall, is coded as the balance among the baseline responses of neurons coding all possible directions of motion. Neural adaptation of neurons stimulated by downward movement reduces their baseline activity, tilting the balance in favor of upward movement. 

    An alternative explanation for the MAE is based on an increase in excitability of neurons having a preference for a direction that is opposite to the adapting direction. Adapting direction-selective neurons hyperpolarize due to long duration intracellular sodium and calcium ion accumulation. This causes extracellular imbalances and an increase in brain tissue excitability; which spreads via ionic diffusion in extracellular space and glial assisted mechanisms. This causes the opposite direction neurons to spike when a stationary stimulus is presented, because these neurons have no hyperpolarizing intracellular imbalances but get surrounded by depolarizing extracellular imbalances. 

  

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